The Middle Managers of Murder Introduction Bureaucracy is not unique to Germany, however its application by the National Socialists as a tool of totalitarian oppression is peerless. Comparisons are often made between Hitler's Germany and Stalin's Soviet Union, but Stalin purged the ranks of the military as well as civil bureaucracies, whereas Hitler preferred to work with the established bureaucracy in deference to expediency. The rapid rearmament of Germany and mobilization for war required that the Nazi regime make use of the existing administrative machinery [ 1 ].
Download MP3, 29 minutes long. Two Ways There are two ways for people to get along in this world.
One looks like this. And the other looks like this. In the first, one person is above the other, with communication going from the upper to the lower. In the second people are side by side, with communication going both ways. And so I will talk about it first.
We see it in business, in government, and in families. Before I explain what makes it seem efficient, let me give names to the two people.
I call the upper person the Master, and the lower one the Slave. After a while, people actually began to object to my words. Check out the controversies here. They did not want to be labeled or they already had other uses for the words. But then, I looked deeper at the use of the terms and found that two great philosophers used the same terms for the same issues: So I guessed I was in good company and kept the terms — Master and Slave.
Because in it decisions not necessarily good ones can be made very quickly. And often quick decisions are important to a group of people.
This truth system determines all the black and white things, what is absolute.
How does it work? If you want to know what is the true — you ask the Master. What is really going on? What should be done?
You never ask the Slave. If a couple wants to decide whether they are going to go into town on a Saturday afternoon, they simply turn to the Master.
It falls apart all the time. You can see this all around you. What makes it so? First, Masters never know when the Slave is going to rebel. Slaves always rebel sooner or later.
Think of the great slave rebellions in history: Second source of instability is in the poor quality of the decisions made. Both Master and Slave have lots of data. But Slaves are not talking.
They are typically quiet, and are told to be. Amazingly the Slave often knows more about what is going on than Masters do. Slaves know what they themselves know and they know what the Master knows since the Master talks.
I call it the Punishment System and it creates the painful things that happen or are threatened to happen to the Slave, if the Slave does not go along with the point of view of the Master. Now, the punishment system comes in two forms:"Dramatic events, including sharp, sudden increases in tensions and unilateral bids for peace, often motivate the turning point of mutual de-escalation.
This webpage is for Dr. Wheeler's literature students, and it offers introductory survey information concerning the literature of classical China, classical Rome, classical Greece, the Bible as Literature, medieval literature, Renaissance literature, and genre studies.
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