The Japanese edition was revised in with the addition of new material, especially of a new chapter on the statistical analysis of extreme waves. Additions to the first English edition are the new sections on the relationships between wave statistics and spectrum, the longshore currents induced by random waves, the motions of ships at mooring, the tests with multidirectional random waves, the advanced theories of directional spectral estimates, and the new chapter on extreme wave statistics.
This is a technique widely used both formally and informally by religious peacemakers. Setting up a school or institution at which students of different faiths or ethnic backgrounds study together is a powerful way of breaking down barriers.
The students of his schools are Muslim, Christian, Druze, Arab and Palestinian, and are taught first and foremost to be model citizens in a land they all share and love.
By focusing on this goal, common to every faith, their religious differences seem less important. While an institutional basis is one way of spreading this message, it can be done informally as well and other peacemakers 4 A copy of the document can be found at http: Buddhi s t Appr oach t o Pol i t i cal Conf l i ct and Peace De vel opment 6 simply preach the message to their communities that all people should be valued, that forgiveness is essential, and that justice should be sought using non-violent means.
Communication Skills The written word is a powerful tool in the armoury of any peacemaker. Some have authored documents setting out a strategy for peace listing the stages of dialogue, negotiation and agreement that needed to be passed through on the road to a cessation of hostilities.
Peacemaking roadmaps of this kind have been used with success in various parts of the world, and formalized commitments in the form of declarations, accords, and agreements can function as milestones on the road to peace.
In Nigeria, a team of Muslim and Christian peacemakers drafted and signed the Kaduna Peace Agreement and then had the document engraved on a plaque which they unveiled together publicly so that the whole community could read and celebrate the achievement.
Philosophies of non-violence and zones of peace In addition to the power of words, more tangible realities have been used in various parts of the world to bring peace. Chief among these are peace zones, which are areas of land set aside not simply as neutral zones but as places of symbolic importance which exude a spirit of harmony and peace.
Just around the corner from my house in London is a Tibetan peace garden opened by the Dalai Lama, a small but harmonious space in the grounds of a larger park. Ironically, the park itself surrounds a well-known military museum known as the Imperial War museum, at the entrance to which stand two enormous canons from a WWII battleship.
The Tibetan peace garden, which lies in their shadow, is a quiet place of solitude and its location is a reminder that war and peace are interrelated realities like yin and yang, and that one can be transformed into the other. Further afield, in El Salvador, Chencho Alas constructed a zone of peace with the help of the local community, after long discussions about how the culture of peace to which they aspired could best be expressed in physical form.
Local leaders agreed to establish the zone and to meet within it to collaborate and help resolve disagreements non-violently. Interfaith mobilization Although religion can divide, it can also unite, and an existing interfaith network is often a natural place for dialogue and cooperative action to begin.
This Buddhi s t Appr oach t o Pol i t i cal Conf l i ct and Peace Devel opment 7 can be true even when the dispute is not religiously based because people of different faiths acknowledge a shared goal of peace regardless of their secular identities.
Examples abound of religious leaders from many communities who have mobilized themselves to search for peaceful solutions. Music has a special power, and group singing or chanting elevates the spirit and creates a bond among those who participate. It is hard to imagine sharing an aesthetic experience of this kind with someone while at the same time wishing to do them harm.
While people of different religions may have different beliefs, they all understand what it means to have a strong faith, and share the ethical belief that the things one does in this world will have consequences that cannot be escaped.
Global Issues The last point leads on to another important dimension of religious peacemaking. Religious peacemakers begin from the premise that all parties to a dispute, whoever they may be, share a common humanity and a transcendent destiny. They also know that what happens to one person affects us all, and this allows them to see local and regional issues in a global context.
Bringing news to the global community through truthful, honest and unbiased commentary is an essential part of their role.
Every night he provided bulletins on the internet focusing on the humanitarian aspects of the crisis, and clarifying the root cause as a clash between two extremist nationalist ideologies rather than anything to do with religion.
In the midst of another regional conflict, this time in the Middle East, Yehezkhel Landau, worked for peace in Israel and the USA by focusing on the humanitarian values such as dignity, honour and freedom so deeply valued by all parties to the conflict. Adapting secular practices Although there is a unique dimension to religious peacemaking, its methods have much in common with those used in a secular context, as noted above.
Peacemakers of all stripes share certain characteristics and techniques, which are summarised by David Little as follows: Buddhi s t Appr oach t o Pol i t i cal Conf l i ct and Peace De vel opment 8 They are good listeners, act non-judgementally, identify human rights abuses, and search for the common ground.
They hold skills training workshops, utilize the media, build institutions, network and partner with secular religious actors, and document the factors in, and the solutions to, their regional conflicts p.
To do their work successfully it is essential for them to be perceived as neutral, or at the very least fair, which may be difficult at times due to the stereotyping which is often associated with membership of particular religious communities. To this extent their religious office can be a double-edged sword, although the positive side of this is that they have access to a range of concepts like forgiveness which are part of the grammar of a universal religious language.
The creation of zones of peace, already mentioned above, can be done in a secular as well as religious setting and has been used by the UN and other international organizations. Religious peacemakers would normally be amendable to such methods when used by their secular counterparts.
Formal training in conflict resolution is also an option some religious peacemakers have explored, and is a body of knowledge and practice that was not always accessible under certain political regimes.
Friar Markovic of Bosnia translated many works on conflict resolution into Croatian so as to make available ideas about pacifism and techniques of compromise and negotiation which were unknown under the preceding communist regime. Religious peacemaking as a vocation A thread that runs throughout the individual narratives in this collection is that all of these practitioners see religious peacemaking as a profession as opposed to something they dabble in from time to time.
Although they wear different hats as clergy, educators or politicians, at bottom they see their vocation as that of peacemaker. And being a peacemaker is a long-term career.The simulations in which the effect of salinity was removed by setting salinity to 0 ppt suggested that largemouth bass could attain kg within to and and y in the upstream and downstream region, respectively.
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One of the more formidable challenges in the genomic revolution is delineating functional DNA elements within the 98% of the genome comprising non-coding sequence. Such elements include structural, recombinatorial, origin of replication, and transcriptional regulatory sequences.
Efficient Numerical Analysis of Focal Plane Antennas for the SKA and the MeerKAT by Danie Ludick Thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the.
The array interface and array protocol. The array interface is a specification for a developer who wishes to implement a replacement for the implementation of arrays, e.g. those used in scipy. The former command is array based and returns byte arrays of ones and zeros providing the result of the element-wise test.
The latter command is object based and returns a scalar describing the result of the test on the entire object.