The Edwardians The 20th century opened with great hope but also with some apprehensionfor the new century marked the final approach to a new millennium.
From the first explosion of Mongol military might from the steppes of central Asia in the early decades of the 13th century to the death of Timur inthe nomads of central Asia made a last, stunning return to center stage in world history.
Mongol invasions ended or interrupted many of the great empires of the postclassical period, while also extending the world network that had increasingly defined the period. Under Chinggis Khan - who united his own Mongol tribesmen and numerous nomadic neighbors into the mightiest war machine the world had seen to that time - central Asia, Georgians transformation essay China, and eastern Persia were brought under Mongol rule.
The Mongol conquests and the empires they produced represented the most formidable nomadic challenge to the growing global dominance of the sedentary peoples of the civilized cores since the great nomadic migrations in the first centuries A. In most histories, the Mongol conquests have been depicted as a savage assault by Georgians transformation essay and barbaric peoples on many of the most ancient and developed centers of human civilization.
Much is made of the ferocity of Mongol warriors in battle, their destruction of great cities, such as Baghdad, in reprisal for resistance to Mongol armies, and their mass slaughters of defeated enemies.
Depending on the civilization from whose city walls a historian recorded the coming of the Mongol "hordes," they were depicted as the scourge of Islam, devils bent on the destruction of Christianity, persecutors of the Buddhists, or defilers of the Confucian traditions of China.
At the peak of their power, the domains of the Mongol khans, or rulers, made up a vast realm in which once-hostile peoples lived together in peace and virtually all religions were tolerated.
From the Khanate of Persia in the west to the empire of the fabled Kubilai Khan in the east, the law code first promulgated by Chinggis Khan ordered human interaction. The result was an important new stage in international contact.
From eastern Europe to southern China, merchants and travelers could move across the well-policed Mongol domains without fear for their lives or property. The great swath of Mongol territory that covered or connected most of Europe, Asia, and the Middle East served as a bridge between the civilizations of the Eastern Hemisphere.
The caravans and embassies that crossed the Mongol lands transmitted new foods, inventions, and ideas from one civilized pool to the others and from civilized pools to the nomadic peoples who served as intermediaries.
Like the Islamic expansion that preceded it, the Mongol explosion did much to lay the foundations for more human interaction on a global scale, extending and intensifying the world network that had been building since the classical age.
This section will explore the sources of the Mongol drive for a world empire and the course of Mongol expansion. Particular attention will be given to the nomadic basis of the Mongol war machine and the long-standing patterns of nomadic-sedentary interaction that shaped the character, direction, and impact of Mongol expansion.
After a discussion of the career and campaigns of Chinggis Khan, separate sections of this chapter will deal with Mongol conquest and rule in Russia and eastern Europe, the Middle East, and China.
The chapter will conclude with an assessment of the meaning of the Mongol interlude for the development of civilization and the growth of cross-cultural interaction on a global scale. In both their destructive and constructive roles, the Mongols generated major changes within the framework of global history.
The Mongol Empire Of Chinggis Khan Mongol legends suggest that the ancient ancestors of the Mongols were forest-dwelling hunters, and the hunt persisted as a central element in Mongol culture. By the time the Mongols are first mentioned in the accounts of the sedentary peoples, who traded with them and periodically felt the fury of their lightning raids, most of them had adopted the life-style of the herding, horse-riding nomads of the central Asian steppes.
In fact, in most ways the Mongols epitomized nomadic society and culture. Their survival depended on the well-being of the herds of goats and sheep they drove from one pasture area to another according to the cycle of the seasons.
Their staple foods were the meat and milk products provided by their herds, supplemented in most cases by grain and vegetables gained through trade with sedentary farming peoples. They also traded hides and dairy products for jewelry, weapons, and cloth manufactured in urban centers.
They dressed in sheepskins, made boots from tanned sheep hides, and lived in round felt tents that were processed from wool sheared from their animals. The tough little ponies they rode to round up their herds, hunt wild animals, and make war, were equally essential to their way of life.
Both male and female Mongol children could ride as soon as they were able to walk. Mongol warriors could literally ride for days on end, sleeping and eating in the saddle.English literature - The 20th century: The 20th century opened with great hope but also with some apprehension, for the new century marked the final approach to a new millennium.
For many, humankind was entering upon an unprecedented era. H.G. Wells’s utopian studies, the aptly titled Anticipations of the Reaction of Mechanical and Scientific Progress upon Human Life and Thought () and A.
Southern states were critical to the war effort during World War II () and none more so than Georgia. Some , Georgians served in the U.S. Armed Forces during World War II, and countless others found employment in burgeoning wartime industries.
The Georgian affair of (Russian: Грузинское дело) was a political conflict within the Soviet leadership about the way in which social and political transformation was to .
The Mongols Page Two. Founding of the Mongol Empire by: Henry Howorth. Genghis Khan.
The Yuan. Akbar and India. Mongols in China (Marco Polo) The Mongols. White and black Georgians awaited another transformation of the economy; it would take World War II () to bring it about.
Where black political rights were concerned, another Reconstruction would be necessary. Reconstruction in Georgia: Economic, Social, Political, (New York: Columbia University Press, ).