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Culture of Poverty Essay Culture of Poverty Essay The culture of poverty, originally termed the subculture of poverty, is a concept that first appeared in in the work of North American anthropologist Oscar Lewis.
As the name implies, this theory focuses attention on the cultural aspects of poverty. The theory holds that adaptation to the economic and structural conditions of poverty promotes the development of deviant social and psychological traits which, in turn, act as barriers to overcoming poverty.
Once a culture of poverty emerges, it is reproduced through the transmission of traits to future generations. This perspective leads to the conclusion that economic solutions are limited in their ability to end poverty. Lewis suggested that social work and psychological interventions accompany economic responses to poverty.
Culture of poverty theory has had a powerful influence on U. A great deal of criticism surfaced as this theory gained prominence as an explanation for poverty in the United States.
That is, the structure of the economy is posited as the initial condition that gives rise to a culture of poverty. It is most likely to emerge during transitional periods such as the shift from an agrarian to an industrial society or when rapid economic and technological shifts occur within a given society.
Although racial discrimination can be a factor, it is not a necessary The culture of poverty oscar lewis essay for a culture of poverty to emerge. Lewis claimed that cultures of poverty formed among ethnically homogeneous populations in Latin America and among poor rural whites and poor African Americans in the United States.
Low-wage, unskilled workers who experience high rates of unemployment or underemployment in capitalist societies that stress social mobility are thought to be at greatest risk for developing a culture of poverty. Culture of Poverty Traits By the time he had fully formulated his theory, Lewis had compiled a list of 70 characteristics thought to be common to groups who live in cultures of poverty.
He characterized members of these cultures as people who do not form their own local organizations and are isolated from participation in mainstream social institutions.
For instance, the theory posits that people who live in cultures of poverty have high rates of unemployment, do not use banks or hospitals, and rely on dubious businesses like pawn shops. Such social isolation initially results from structural conditions of poverty e.
However, when opportunities do arise, cultural values that develop in response to isolation work against future integration into mainstream society.
Family illustrates another way that the values of the poor are said to deviate from mainstream society. The theory holds that cultures of poverty are characterized by community and family disorganization. Male unemployment is thought to discourage formal marriage and encourage female-headed households.
In addition to recognizing economic disincentives to marry, women may view poor men as too punitive and immature for marriage. The theory also contends that no prolonged period of childhood occurs, and consequently, children experience early initiation into adult activities such as sexual relations.
High rates of adult illiteracy and low levels of education contribute to the inferior academic performance of children raised in a culture of poverty. Impulsivity, a present-time orientation, and an inability to set goals further impede educational attainment.
Not all impoverished groups form a culture of poverty.
A connection to local organizations or national movements hinders such development by providing the poor with a greater purpose. For example, Lewis claimed that a culture of poverty is less likely to form in socialist countries like Cuba, where neighborhood committees helped to integrate the poor into the national agenda.
Criticism of Culture of Poverty Theory Criticism surfaced as a culture of poverty framework gained dominance among U. Critics focused their attention on methodological concerns and on poverty policies and programs influenced, in their development, by culture of poverty theory.
Critics suggest that the popularity of culture as an explanation for poverty is inappropriate, because Lewis based his theory on findings from a small number of interviews with Latin American families.
In fact, findings from subsequent research studies that employed in-depth fieldwork called into question the claims put forth by Lewis and his contemporary adherents. Family and community disorganization is an example of one theme targeted by critics.
Critics claim empirical evidence shows that poor groups who have been depicted as disorganized actually live in highly organized neighborhoods and rely on extended kin and friendship networks.
Moreover, research finds that poor women value marriage as much as their middle-class counterparts do. Although critics agree that in recent years, inner-city family and neighborhood networks have eroded, they trace this pattern to structural causes such as the loss of living-wage jobs and cuts to the social safety net.
Critics are concerned that the focus on behavior gave rise to ineffective poverty policies and programs. For instance, recent growth in job programs that center on developing a work ethic and teaching the poor how to dress and behave in a work environment exemplifies the type of behavioral approaches that critics view as ineffective.
These approaches contrast sharply with the decline in structural solutions like the creation of living-wage jobs and the expansion of the social safety net e. The extent to which behavioral solutions are reflected in poverty policies and programs shifts over time.
The influence of culture of poverty theory on U. Poverty in the U. Both of these scholars influenced President Lyndon B.every single palliative care doctor I have ever met is relentlessly cheerful and upbeat and this is a total mystery to me.
All the stuff in this post, the extended suffering, the dying by inches. The culture of poverty is a concept in social theory that asserts that the values of people experiencing poverty play a significant role in perpetuating their impoverished condition, sustaining a cycle of poverty across generations.
When the Left complains about being "silenced," it is not because they are actually prevented from speaking, but only because they are vetconnexx.com their Orwellian, or Marcusan, universe, "Free speech" is when the Right is silenced. Kaaryn Gustafson: Early writings on the culture of poverty, for example those by Oscar Lewis and Michael Harrington, suggested that the culture of poverty was an effect, namely an effect of economic and social exclusion.
Those writings suggested that people who faced few economic opportunities in society grew hopeless. The Hollywood Reporter is your source for breaking news about Hollywood and entertainment, including movies, TV, reviews and industry blogs. Culture of Poverty Essay Critique the culture of poverty thesis Oscar Lewis introduced his idea of “a culture of poverty” in He developed the theory as a result of his work with the poor in Mexico and Puerto Rico.
Culture of poverty is defined.